To exclude this aftereffect of the methylation of the E2BS1 on promoter activity is determined by the cell type that was used

Overall, our work shows that zebrafish cannot only restore surgically removed heart tissue, but also regenerate necrotic lesions. Since the latter type of injury is closer to the cardiac tissue damage seen in human patients, our results underscore the relevance of research into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of natural heart regeneration in the zebrafish for efforts to devise regenerative therapies in humans. While we find that both ventricular resection and cryoinjury induced lesions are repaired using similar cellular mechanisms, we noticed a few temporal differences. Combined with the fact that we find setting of cryoinjuries to be less demanding of the experimenter and better tolerated by the fish than ventricular resection, we expect that this injury model will be highly valuable for future research into the molecular mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration. Plant growth and development are constrained by environmental stress conditions. Salt stress is one of the major environmental stresses in agriculture worldwide and affects productivity and crop quality. High salinity stress causes hyperosmotic stress, ion toxicity and nutrient deficiency, and can lead to molecular damage and even plant death. To respond and adapt to high salinity stress, plants have developed many strategies, such as selective ion uptake and exclusion, efficient detoxification by the antioxidant system, and the accumulation of osmotically protective matter. Numerous salt tolerance- relevant genes are induced in response to salt stress. The remorin protein family exists in all land plants, including angiosperms, gymnosperms, pteridophytes and bryophytes. The first remorin was discovered in potato in 1989 and named pp34 for its 34 kD molecular mass position in protein gels. The protein was renamed as remorin to indicate its ability to attach to the plasma membrane. Recently, more remorin genes have been identified from different plants. Remorins contain a conserved C-terminal region and a variable N-terminal region. The coiled-coil structure exists in the C-terminal region of remorin and is considered the family’s signature. The variable Nterminal region of remorin suggests different structures and functions. Based on the phylogenetic trees analysis and the different N-terminal domains, remorins are divided into six groups. While groups 1, 2 and 3 were not clearly separated by phylogeny, their domain features allowed them to be subdivided LY294002 further. In addition, many remorins could oligomerize in vitro. The dehydration responsive element binding -type transcription factors are a subfamily of the APETALA2 / ethylene responsive factor protein family, and play an important role in the responses to various stresses. Since the first DREB gene was cloned using the yeast one-hybrid screening system in Arabidopsis, many DREB genes have been identified from rice, maize and barely. Most DREB genes were responsive to abiotic stresses. The DREB proteins bind to the DRE core sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulate their transcription. The overexpression of these DREB genes enhanced transgenic plant tolerance to abiotic stresses and accumulated osmoprotectants, such as proline and sugars. Past studies indicate that DREB transcription factors regulated downstream gene expression through the abscisic acid -independent signal pathway. However, increasing evidence shows that some DREB transcription factors are also responsive to ABA signals and are involved in the ABA signal pathway. Foxtail millet, an important crop in China, can grow in marginal soils and has a high tolerance of hostile environments. It is important to identify new stress-relevant genes from foxtail millet. Although there is little data to confirm the function of the remorins in abiotic stresses, several expression analyses suggest that remorin genes are responsive to abiotic stresses and involved in signal transduction pathways. In the present study, we found 11 remorin genes, based on the C-terminal conserved domain of remorin proteins, in the foxtail millet transcriptome. We cloned them from foxtail millet cDNA and named them SiREM1 to SiREM11. SiREM6 was induced by high salinity, low temperature and ABA treatment. The overexpression of SiREM6 in Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerance to high salt stress during seed germination and seedling development stages. In the past, most studies on the functions of remorins focused on plant-microbe interactions and biotic stresses. However, the precise functions of remorins are not certain. Additionally, compared with their functions during biotic stress, less data has been reported on the functions of remorins during abiotic stress. Foxtail millet is an important crop in China. It is nutritionally rich and adapts well to stress. However, there is less research on foxtail millet than on other crops, such as rice, maize and wheat. In the present study, 11 remorin genes were identified and cloned from foxtail millet, and the function of SiREM6 during abiotic stress was analyzed. The coiled-coil structure in the conserved C-terminal of proteins is a typical remorin signature. Proteins containing the coiled-coil structure usually interact with other coiled-coil proteins and can be oligomerized. The SiREM6 protein contains the signature coiled-coil domain in the C-terminal and could be oligomerized in vitro.

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